Адаптивная оптика (лат. adapto - приспосабливаю и греч. Οπτική - наука о зрении) - динамическая оптическая система, способная исправлять волновой фронт электромагнитного излучения, искажается на пути его распространения от источника к приемнику.В отличие от активной оптики с медленной коррекцией к адаптивной основном относятся быстродействующей системы, работающие на частотах 1-1000 Гц.

История

Идеи адаптивной оптики принадлежат У. Бебоку. Нами заинтересовались 1953 года, когда возникла необходимость преодолеть ограничения разрешения телескопов, обусловлены в первую очередь атмосферной нестабильностью, а также погрешностями ведения телескопа, его дрожанием, термической деформацией, сейсмическими колебаниями. Воплощение этих идей стало возможным с середины 70-х годов. Одна из первых попыток построения адаптивной оптики - семиелементний телескоп АСТ-1200, установленный в Крымской астрофизической обсерватории.

Подробную построение адаптивной оптики и первые результаты ее викорстання приведены в трудах западноевропейской ассоциации обсерваторий (COME-ON) по проектам Европейской Южной Обсерватории (ESO).

Применение

Атмосферная турбулентность носит случайный характер и вызывает как поглощение, так и преломления света, которые зависят от длины волны излучения. Шкала атмосферных неоднородностей достигает от 0.5м до сотен метров. Свет по-разному преломляется на этих неоднородностях и при использовании зеркальных телескопов большого апертуры (несколько метров) это приводит к размытия полученного изображения. Коррекция осуществляется через специализированную компьютерную систему за счет микрозмин кривизны первичного зеркала с целью компенсировать мгновенный вклад атмосферной турбулентности. Динамическое отслеживание изменений зкоригованого волнового фронта позволяет постоянно поддерживать его плоскую форму, что значительно повышает разрешение телескопа. Использование адаптивной оптики в наземных телескопах позволяет практически достичь теоретической разрешения, ограниченной лишь дифракцией.

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